Cyprus is geographically situated in the centre of a region which connects Asia Europe and Africa continents to each other. Cyprus is one of the five largest islands in Mediterranean and is the third largest island after Sicily and Sardinia. The area of the island is 9251 square kilometers and its 3241 square kilometers belong to The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and its 5510 square kilometers of the island belong to Southern Cyprus. While 244 square kilometers–area belong to the buffer zone which is in between two sides, British Bases constitute 256 square kilometers–area.
Throughout history Cyprus, due to its geographical location and richness, has been focus of attention of strong states and has been host to a wide variety of states and civilizations. The first inhabitants of Cyprus thought to have migrated to the island from Anatolia, Syria or Palestine between the years 7000 – 6500 BC. The mountains of the countries of these people that were climed to came to the island with rafts when they were escaping from natural hazard and enemy attacks are seen from the island in open weathers. The name of Cyprus which is the most important island in the Eastern Mediterranean, took from the reach copper mines that were started to process from the Bronze age.Its location and its natural resources such as olives, cereals and grape made Cyprus a very important trade center. With these properties, many old civilizations tried to capture it and those which managed, each left behind important cultural heritage and made the island center of attraction. Egyptians, Assyrian, Phoenicians, Romans, Byzantines, Louisianans, Venetians and Ottomans were the most important civilizations which ruled the island.
The presence of the Ottoman and Turks in the island has began with the conquest in 1571.In Cyprus, which was in Turkish domination, was applied a management system which was appropriate to Ottoman administrative system. Island, due to political conditions of its time, in 1878 temporarily, was left to the British management but Britain unilaterally annexed Cyprus in 1914. British administration in Cyprus continued until the foundation of The Republic of Cyprus in 1960. The Republic of Cyprus, which was founded with the partnership of Turks and Greek people, came to an end due to the ENOSIS dreams of the Greek Cypriots.
After 1964, The Turkish Cypriot people, as a result of the accumulation of that they have acquired by passing through various stages and by using the right of self-determination, founded The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 15 November 1983. Although it isn’t recognized by the international community apart from Turkey, this small Turkish state is resuming its life with all the qualifications required to be a state.
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, ruled by democratic and multiparty system, has a functioning administrative system which has been established by modelled on “Motherland” Turkey. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which has complicated administrate structure a large bureaucratic organization despite being a small state, has created an administrative system that has been adapted to the conditions of the country by staying connected to the case of Turkey over the Anglo-Saxon way of tradition, which is from the time of British rule. Despite all social and economical problems and the political turmoils, The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has been able to continue its life as an independent country since 1983.
The Chronological Calendar of Cyprus History
BC 1450 – 700 Old Egypt Domination
BC 700 – 545 Assyrian Domination
BC 545 – 345 Persian Domination
BC 345 – 290 Helen Domination
BC 290 – 58 Ptolemik King Domination
BC 58 – AC 395 Roman Domination
395 – 1190 Byzantine Domination
1190 – 1191 English Domination
1191 – 1489 Louisianans Domination
1489 – 1570 Venetian Domination
1570 – 1878 Ottoman Domination
1878 – 1960 English Domination
1960 – 1963 Cyprus Republic
1974 – 1983 Cyprus Turkish Federal State – Greek Administration
1983-……Turkish Republic Of Northern Cyprus- Greek Cypriot Administration